Articles by Elizabeth Nichols

Photo of the authorElizabeth Nichols is a founding member of the Usability Lab in the Center for Behavioral Science Methods at the U.S. Census Bureau. She conducts usability studies, cognitive testing, focus groups, and other experiments focusing on survey measurement error. She has an M.S. in Statistics from George Washington University.

Drag-and-Drop Versus Numeric Entry Options: A Comparison of Survey Ranking Questions in Qualtrics

Abstract An online feedback survey for the 2020 United States Census Partnership program included a question asking respondents to rank the amount of time they spent on six job-related tasks. For this study, we randomly assigned respondents to answer this question using either the numeric entry or drag-and-drop option available in Qualtrics™. We compared the […] [Read More]

Labeling and Placement of the Logout Button in Mobile Surveys

Abstract As more people use smartphones to complete web surveys, survey designers are beginning to optimize online questionnaires for limited screen displays, determining which design practices and features can carry over to mobile devices. One such feature is a logout button—an action button that allows users to leave the survey, usually saving their information by […] [Read More]

Usability of Access Codes

Abstract Access codes are a series of numbers, letters, or characters provided to a user when there is a level of identification required to gain entry to an online service, such as the claim code for an online gift certificate. The challenge with access codes is that they need to be unique enough that someone […] [Read More]